How to Write an Abstract
An abstract is a brief, formal summary of your research and paper, usually one paragraph in length. It generally comes before the paper (if you’re using APA formatting, it is page 2, after the cover page; if you’re using MLA, it comes after the title of the paper on page 1), but should be written in such a way that it could stand on its own.
There are multiple purposes for an abstract:
- It makes the topic of your paper clear
- It briefly states the ‘approaches your research takes
- It presents a brief explanation of your ideas and findings
- It entices the reader to read further
The abstract should address each of the following items; these can come in any order that makes sense and flows naturally. Each of these parts should be very brief Bear in mind that everything you say in your abstract will be dealt with at much greater length in the paper itself, so you don’t need to be exhaustive here.
- Explain the purpose/goal of your paper. What were your reasons for conducting this research? Why is this paper relevant to your reader?
- Identify your paper’s scope. What did you focus on in your research land writing? (Obviously, the topic you’ve chosen could be approached from other angles as well – why did you choose the angle you did?)
- Provide a brief description of your research and writing methods. What kind of evidence did you draw: from?
- Sketchy out the paper’s concluding section.. How you do this will depend on how ^you conclude your paper. If you suggest a solution to an ongoing problem,
Identify it here. If your conclusion points towards areas of further research and/ro inquiry, indicate the direction that might be taken.
Though an abstract is generally very brief, it is nonetheless a challenging form of writing that demands a certain amount of time, attention, and planning. Care should be taken to ensure that the abstract is written formally, and that it conforms to the expectations for academic writing (avoidance of “I,” freedom from grammatical errors, etc.).
Two Sample Abstracts
Emotional intelligence is a social construct that reflects an. individual s inter-personal and intra- personal skills such as self-awareness, regulation of one’s own emotions, communication skills, empathy, and professionalism. It encompasses a host of non-cognitive characteristics that are independent of IQ and other knowledge-based technical skills. This paper takes into account academic research along with findings in Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman (1995) to demonstrate that emotional intelligence is a necessary component of a physician s skill set.^ Therefore, it must be assessed prior to admission into medical school to ensure the graduation of quality health care professionals that are not only scientifically knowledgeable, but also emotionally intelligent and socially aware. Additionally, physicians must be in tune with the humanistic demands of an ever-growing, multicultural patient population, and reflect the values of communities in which they serve. This paper illustrates the importance of emotional intelligence in the medical profession and calls for necessary research to be conducted to further validate assessments that can accurately measure one’s emotional intelligence. Ultimately, the aim of this paper is to propose that medical schools need to take measures in their admission process development to ensure that their students will hot only succeed in medical school, but will also succeed as quality health care professionals in the context of primary patient care.
This paper’s purpose is to examine the social effects of jazz music. It focuses on the exploitation of black jazz musicians by whites in the industry and looks at whether black musicians benefited at all from their innovations. Many of today’s African American musicians are faced with similar social circumstances as those of past jazz musicians and as a result, the importance of the African American culture is still being ignored. Despite the negative social conditions that blacks faced, some blacks were still able to benefit and gained respect, stardom, and recognition for being the inventors of jazz music.
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