Assessment 3 – MHA-FP5019

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Assessment 3 – MHA-FP5019 – Winter 2018 – Section 01

 

 

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Overview

Develop a 2-3-page Baseline Management and Staffing Plan that reflects the workplace organizational design of your project. Include a competed Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) as an appendix to your plan.

Note: You must complete Assessment 2 before beginning this assessment.

The project manager needs to apply leadership and organizational skills to help focus and guide the project. Leadership, business, and organizational skills are essential in all aspects of project management.

As a leader and organizer of a project, it is important to know who will be responsible, the tasks and functions involved, and the best approach for team development. A work breakdown structure (WBS) and responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) are necessary to determine the phases of work and the people responsible for working on each deliverable.

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

    Competency 1: Develop a project management plan that addresses all aspects of a project.

» Develop a baseline management and staffing plan that reflects the workplace organizational design and leadership strategies for a health care organization and is consistent with the requirements of the project.

    Competency 2: Apply leadership skills to develop and guide effective team work.

0 Develop a responsibility assignment matrix for a project.

0 Analyze the team leadership strategies that promote successful project execution.

0 Analyze the team development strategies that promote successful project execution.

    Competency 4: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for professionals in health administration.

« Write clearly and concisely in a form and style consistent with professional health

 

 
   

administration project management communications.

 

 
   

Competency Map

 

     

CHECK YOUR
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Assessment 3 – MHA-FP5019 – Winter 2018 – Section 01

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Use this online tool to track your performance and progress through your course.

 

Questions to Consider

As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community.

Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.

     What leadership strategies are effective for working with a team?

     What are the developmental strategies for creating a high-performing team?

    What would you like technology help you do to make managing projects more efficient or easier?

    What are examples of project management applications that are used by leaders and managers in a health care setting?

0 What are the strengths and weaknesses, based on product reviews of project management software?

    What would you suggest an individual or an organization could do to improve skills and implementation of project management software in a health care setting?

Resources

Required Resources

The following resources are required to complete the assessment.

     Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) [XLSXj.

Suggested Resources

The resources provided here are optional. You may use other resources of your choice to prepare for this assessment; however, you will need to ensure that they are appropriate, credible, and valid. The MHA-FP5019 Project Management and Team Leadership Library Guide can help direct your research, and the Supplemental Resources and Research Resources, both linked from the left navigation menu in your courseroom, provide additional resources to help support you.

Capella Resources

     Health Administration Masters (MHA) Research Guide.

     APA Paper Template.

https://courserooma.capella.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_8… 4/12/2018

Assessment 3 – MHA-FP5019 – Winter 2018 – Section 01

    

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Text Box: Page 3 of 4APA Paper Tutorial.

Capella Multimedia

     Project Schedule | Transcript.

     Interview: Leading Teams in Project Management | Transcript.

     The Big 6: An Active Listening Skill Set | Transcript.

     Project Management Improvements at Keystone Management | Transcript.

     PM Processes, Process Groups, and Knowledge Areas | Transcript.

Capella University Library Resources

     Lewis, J. P. (2007). Fundamentals of project management. New York, NY: AMACOM.

° Chapter 5: Using the work breakdown structure to plan a project.

   Marie, F., & Vidal, L. (2011). Project risk management processes: Improving coordination using a clustering approach. Research In Engineering Design, 22(3), 189-206.

   Nielsen, K. R. (2006). Risk management: lessons from six continents. Journal of Management in Engineering, 22(2), 61-67.

   Project Management Institute. (2013). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK Guide) (5th ed.). Newtown Square, PA: Author.

Internet Resources

Please note that links may change frequently. Permissions to use the following links have been granted, or the links have been deemed appropriate for educational use at the time of course publication.

     Project Management Institute, (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pmi.org Bookstore Resources

These resources are available from the Capella University Bookstore.

  

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Meredith, J. R., Mantel, S. J., Shafer, S. M., & Sutton, M. M. (2017). Project management in practice (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

 

Assessment Instructions

Note: Continue using the workplace scenario from Assessments 1 and 2.The audience for this assessment would be a work supervisor and project team leaders.

Develop a Baseline Management and Staffing Plan that reflects the workplace organizational design and leadership strategies for your project. Use either phases or project work (phases are used in complex projects).

Staffing Plan

Create a RAM, using the Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Template linked in the Required Resources.

     Determine the team roles and responsibilities needed on the project.

     Describe the criteria you would use to determine an appropriate fit for each role.

https://courserooma.capella.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_8… 4/12/2018

Assessment 3 — MHA-FP5019 – Winter 2018 – Section 01

   

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Text Box: Page 4 of 4Determine who is responsible for each aspect of the project.

Baseline Management Plan

Develop a 2-3-page base line management plan that describes the rationale behind your RAM.

Analyze the strategies for team leadership and team development.

    Explain how the strategies promote successful project execution.

    Provide credible support for your analyses.

Submit your Baseline Management Plan. Add the RAM as an Appendix to your plan.

Portfolio Prompt: You may choose to save this learning activity to your ePortfolio, in the

Professional Showcase binder.

Additional Requirements

    Written communication: Your documents should be professionally written in a form and style appropriate for the various stakeholders. Consider the purpose of the document, its intended use, and the setting in which your project is being executed.

    Document format: Submit your Baseline Management and Staffing Plans as a Microsoft Word document. You may embed other Microsoft files, such as Excel files, in your document or submit them as attachments.

    APA formatting: Resources and citations should be formatted according to current APA style and formatting standards.

Baseline Management and Staffing Plans Scoring Guide

VIEW SCORING

Use the scoring guide to enhance your

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learning.

 

 

How to use the scoring guide

 


 

SUBMIT ASSESSMENT

This button will take you to the next available assessment
attempt tab, where you will be able to submit your assessment.

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PROJECT SCHEDULE

 

 
   

Setting Up the Tasks

The tasks should be arranged according to phase or milestone.

Tasks do not need to be organized in chronological order. You must set predecessors to show the order in which the work should be completed.

At this time, you must also set durations for your project. There are multiple ways to do this, however for the purpose of this course it is recommended that you set a completion date for the project and work backwards.

Assigning Resources

When you are assigning resources, pay attention to how much time you are expecting the resource to spend on the task. For example, if the task duration is set to 1 day but you want two resources to do the work, set them each at 50%.

Once you have finished assigning resources, make sure to check whether they are over allocated or not. You do not want your team members working more than 8 hours per day and 40 hours per week. Remember: your project is occurring in a perfect world.

If your resources are over allocated, try leveling your resources.

 

 
   

Presenter: Kris Luopa Interactive Design: MarcAshmore Instructional Design: Graeme Braithwaite Project Management: David Balthazor

 

   

CREDITS

 

 
 
   

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

 

 
 

 

 

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INTERVIEW: LEADING TEAMS IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Background and Introduction

Don Gottwald:

My background is primarily technical project management in IT. Dealing with a variety of different IT applications and projects and I guess the best way to describe my background is a kind of broad, encompassing all types of different applications. Program development, infrastructure development, security, management, business continuity, disaster recovery, project management and network architect, managing architect for network applications and a bunch more enterprise resource planning systems in a variety of different settings. Human resources, financial services, insurance company, K-12 and even strategic leadership in terms of higher education, from the perspective of developing an online kind of a presence in the community college. So, I have got a wide variety of backgrounds in terms of leading project teams.

Interview: Leading Teams in Project Management

Host:

What specific ways that you have led teams initially at the beginning of a project?

Don Gottwald:

Well, one of the key problems that a lot of projects experience is the fact that a number of people are assigned to a project and this is in addition to other duties that they have. So there are always constraints and nobody really wants to work and do more work. So, as a project manager you always have this constraint if you will, that people have more to do than time to do it and so now you need to find a way to motivate them to work with you.

One of the key ways to do this is to share the vision of the project and get people to buy into that particular vision. Instead of telling them that they are on the project and they have certain duties within that project, you ask them, what they think of this particular project and what their interest are and how they could help achieve the outcomes of the project. So, you do not tell them what to do? You get him to buy into the vision and they are more than willing to help you get that vision realized.

Host:

Do you normally document the project vision as well when you are working with teams?

Don Gottwald:

4/12/2018

Text Box: 4/12/2018Oh absolutely, the assignment of a project comes through a process called a Charter. A Chartered document optionalizes (sp) the project to proceed and then gives you the authority as the Project Manager to make it happen. So, the first think you need to do is identify what needs to be done? That is not always as easy as it sounds because what is in the charter is a high-level description of what people expect and what they are asking for not necessarily what they need. So, you as a project manager have to look at all over the stake holders that are involved and confirm, what they need rather than what they ask for.

https://media.capella.edu/CourseMedia/MHA5019/LeadingTeams/transcript.html

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Text Box: TranscriptThat is what you need to document in terms of your project vision. Ones you have documented that, then you identify who needs to participate in this process. What are the skill set requirements and when are those skill set requirements going to come into play; bearing in mind that yours is not the only project within an organization. There are number of constrains in terms of resource availability. So you need to work within those constrains. You have the budget, you have to go ahead to make this project happen; but you do not necessarily have the agreement from the functional departments for the resources that are needed to make it happen. So, you have to become a very skilled negotiator, have excellent interpersonal relationship skills to get functional manages, to work with you and negotiate with you as to when particular resources would be available.

You need to do this on the flexible basis because your initial plan may not be right on target in terms of the schedule because of other things that may come into project. For instance, unaccounted for unanticipated risks that actually happen, that could indicate that you need the resource instead of in April, you need them in May. Now, you need to go back to the functional department and say, wait a minute, that resource that I thought I needed in April, I now need them in May. You may have to do this several times. So, if you do not have a good relationship with those functional areas, they are going to look at you kind of strange.

Host:

You talked about motivating team members through the shared vision. What conflicts usually occurred that you need to navigate in order for the project to be successful when you are dealing with motivating the team members.

Don Gottwald:

The biggest conflict is their other duties and other projects that require their skill set. It depends on the relationship you have with everyone within the organization and within the project team, whether or not they will be able to accommodate you. Sometimes, you deal with a project that is not as high of a priority as perhaps another project or there maybe a legislative edict that came out. Some legislative action that demands that another project move up in priority. So, you have to deal with the conflict of not being able to get the resources when you need them and also inform the stakeholders that you may have some issues in terms of meeting the dates because of those resource constrains.

So, motivating the individual to work with you, it is not the easiest thing in the world, particularly highly skilled individuals who tend to have somewhat of a prima donna complex. Best thing to do with them is to acknowledge your expertise and ask for the help as to, how can we get this done and who should we involve in getting it done? Not necessarily implying that they should do it, but asking for their help and assistance and they are more than willing to help you. If you are humble enough to ask for it and if you are gracious enough to accept the fact that they are the experts in this particular area. So, it gets down to as a project leader, you cannot have a big ego, you have to go on to the background because you need to make things happen.

So, it is not about you, it is about getting highly skilled resources to work for you.

Host:

It sounds like team building, might be a big or secondary element there.

Don Gottwald:

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Text Box: 4/12/2018Team building is big. Particularly, if you are dealing with different teams from different areas, different cultures, different ethnic background, different expertise levels. Sometimes people consider other people not to be as good as they are and there is some conflict there, because they feel that maybe this person

https://media.capella.edu/CourseMedia/MHA5019/LeadingTeams/transcript.html

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Text Box: Transcriptshould not be here, he is not as skilled or she is not as skilled as we are. So, you need to deal with that, but if you focus on what is important, those kind of issues go away because if you involve everyone, empower them to act; I do not tell people what they need to do, they have the expertise to know what to do, they know the expertise and how to do it.

The What? You have provided through that shared vision, the How? That is up to them. So, if you stay away from the How? And talk about what needs to be done, when it needs to be done and how can we get there, then people will respond to that kind of an approach much more readily, then you tell them, that next week you have to do this, the week and after you have to do this. You ask them, when can we get this done and how do we make sure that we meet our projected schedule expectations? People respond to that very well and they work together for the most part.

Healthcare situation; I was appointed as the manager for the networking and laboratory aspects of a major healthcare provider and the biggest problem — the way that 32 people that did not work together. They did their own thing, the previous person that led them, he was a very excellent technical person, but he had no management skills or leadership skills. I had worked with the group with various members of that group because they were on one of my projects and then they appointed me as the person to lead the overall team and two things happened there. One is I was informed that I had to inform the group myself that I was their new boss.

I had them altogether in one room and I said, “I have a good news and bad news, the good news is you have a new boss, the bad news is, it is me.” It lightened up the situation a little bit, but my first step was to inform them, what we need to do and set the stage for a vision because we had a backlog of about 1800 IT requests that just had to be taken care of. We had a very bad reputation as a team and the reason for that was that they had flextime, they came in when they wanted and nobody knew who was doing what. They worked on whatever they wanted.

Step one for me it was to say, okay, we still have flextime, but now you need to tell me when you are here on a regular basis. So when I need you, I know where I can find you. Second is let us find out who has what expertise and let us make sure that the projects that they are working on meets that expertise level. Third, here are something that we need to talk about in terms of how we respond to our customers and fourth is what we need to let the helpdesk know in terms of our availability and who will be taking care of what.

I can tell you that within three weeks, we have taken that 1800 item backlog down to 300. A lot of those things were just minor items that just nobody got to and we worked on it and say, okay, how do we get this thing done, how do we reduce that backlog, then how do we get move forward in terms of doing what the customer needs.

CREDITS

Text Box: CREDITSThe team came together, they recognized that now we have a vision to go by, a process that yields desired results and all of a sudden the issues that we had, the team issues that existed forever, they went away.

4/12/2018

Text Box: 4/12/2018Subject Matter Expert: Don Gottwald, PhD, PMP Interactive Design: Marc Ashmore Instructional Design: Nicole Savant Project Management: Alan Campbell

https://media.capella.edu/CourseMedia/MHA5019/LeadingTeams/transcript.html

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THE BIG 6: AN ACTIVE LISTENING SKILL SET

 

What does it take to be a good listener?

The ability to listen effectively is an essential component of leadership, but few leaders know just what it takes to become a better listener. You can improve your ability to lead effectively by learning the skills for active listening.

Active listening involves paying attention, withholding judgment, reflecting, clarifying, summarizing, and sharing. And each listening skill requires several techniques or behaviors.

The Center for Creative Leadership’s Michael Hoppe recently authored the guidebook Active Listening to make CCL’s approach to active listening available to a broad audience.

Let us look at the six skills that Hoppe says contribute to an active listening repertoire:

No. 1: Pay attention. One goal of active listening is to set a comfortable tone and allow time and opportunity for the other person to think and speak. Pay attention to your frame of mind as well as your body language. Be focused on the moment and operate from a place of respect.

No. 2: Withhold judgment. Active listening requires an open mind. As a listener and a leader, you need to be open to new ideas, new perspectives and new possibilities. Even when good listeners have strong views, they suspend judgment, hold their criticism, and avoid arguing or selling their point right away.

No. 3: Reflect. Learn to mirror the other person’s information and emotions by paraphrasing key points. Do not assume that you understand correctly or that the other person knows you have heard him. Reflecting is a way to indicate that you and your counterpart are on the same page.

No. 4: Clarify. Do not be shy to ask questions about any issue that is ambiguous or unclear. Open-ended, clarifying and probing questions are important tools. They draw people out and encourage them to expand their ideas, while inviting reflection and thoughtful response.

No. 5: Summarize. Restating key themes as the conversation proceeds confirms and solidifies your grasp of the other person’s point of view. It also helps both parties to be clear on mutual responsibilities and follow-up. Briefly summarize what you have understood as you listened, and ask the other person to do the same.

No. 6: Share. Active listening is first about understanding the other person, then about being understood. As you gain a clearer understanding of the other person’s perspective, you can then introduce your ideas, feelings, and suggestions. You might talk about a similar experience you had or share an idea that was triggered by a comment made previously in the conversation.

If you apply the six skills required for active listening, you will not only be known as a good listener. You will become a better leader as well.

https://media.capella.edu/CourseMedia/MHA5019/ActiveListeningSkillSet/transcript.html 4/12/2018


                             
 

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REFERENCES Center for Creative Leadership Leading Effectively Podcast Series

 

 
   

Instructional Designer: Tiffany Herder Interactive Designer: Patrick Lapinski Project Management: Catherine Baumgartner

 

   

CREDITS

 

 
 
   

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

 

 
   

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Transcript

 

 

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REFERENCES Center for Creative Leadership Leading Effectively Podcast Series

 

 
   

CREDITS

Instructional Designer: Tiffany Herder Interactive Designer: Patrick Lapinski Project Management: Catherine Baumgartner

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

 

 

 
   

 

 

4/12/2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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PROJECT MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTS AT KEYSTONE
MANAGEMENT

 
 


INTRODUCTION__________________________________________________

 

As the new Project Office Director for Keystone Management, Aaron has been asked to participate in the corporate Continuous Process Improvement initiatives by identifying recommendations for specific aspects of Keystone’s project management methodology.

To meet this requirement, Aaron began by talking with project managers about their experience and insights, which he then translated into strategies aimed at improving the process, environment, and quality of project management at Keystone Management.

Your goal is to review the information Aaron gathered and his recommendations for each of the six topics in this simulation. You will then clarify how improvements in each area can contribute to improvements at Keystone. Along the way, we will provide you with the following:

     Project Manager reflections.

     Aaron’s recommendations.

     Opportunities to clarify improvement opportunities.

     Feedback on improvement opportunities.

     Topic summaries.

INSTRUCTIONS___________________________________________________

In this simulation, you will work through a total of six topics related to project management improvements for Keystone Management. For each topic, you will be presented with project manager reflections and Aaron’s recommendations. You will use this information to clarify how improvements in each area can contribute to improvements for Keystone Management. Feedback will be provided on your responses.

TOPIC 1: DEFINING REQUIREMENTS____________________________

What role do project requirements play in project management quality and success?

Figure of Requirements Definition

This figure illustrates how different types of requirements are connected and defined.

• Business requirements are defined by the project sponsor.

http://media.capella.edu/CourseMedia/MHA5019/ProjectMgmtImprovementsKeystoneSi… 4/12/2018

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Text Box: TranscriptSize and complexity information is defined by the project management team.

   Functional and non-functional requirements are defined by both the development and testing teams.

    Expectations and constraints are defined by other stakeholders.

    User requirements are defined by user representatives.

Aaron began his discussions with project managers by stating that from his experience, well-defined requirements are the cornerstone for project success and quality results.

Review the project manager responses and Aaron’s recommendations to clarify how well-defined requirements can contribute to improvements throughout all phases of the project life cycle.

Complete the following:

    Consult Project Managers to learn about some of their experiences.

    Consult Aaron to review his recommendations.

Resources

Kay

I once took over a project where appropriate stakeholders were not involved in defining requirements. Knowing we were in jeopardy of developing something that would not meet their needs, we postponed the project until all stakeholders could contribute to defining and approving the requirements.

Conrad

I have worked on projects with such an urgency to begin developing, minimal attention was given to the design phase. It is a good sign when organizations focus deliberate attention on design to ensure that requirements are clearly defined, understood, and agreed upon before any development work actually begins.

Joan

Reaching a common understanding in this phase is critical. I once wrote a set of requirements I thought were quite thorough, only to have the vendor rewrite them. It turns out they were simply translating them into language the developers were familiar with to ensure that they were interpreting our requirements correctly and that the developers would clearly understand what we wanted.

Matthew

A successful project is one that meets the requirements, so they have to be your foundation. Without them, your task list, estimates of time and cost, test plans, acceptance criteria, and other elements are in jeopardy of being developed without understanding what you need to accomplish.

Aaron’s Recommendations

Aaron knew from his own experience that well-defined requirements are the cornerstone for project success and quality results. After learning about the experiences of the other project managers, Aaron selected the following as best practices for Keystone Management.

http://media.capella.edu/CourseMedia/MHA5019/ProjectMgmtImprovementsKeystoneSi… 4/12/2018

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Text Box: TranscriptInvolving appropriate stakeholders in all project phases will generally improve the probability of satisfying the project requirements and objectives. This encourages buy-in or shared ownership of the project by the stakeholders which is critical to the project’s success.

   Allow appropriate roles to define the requirements they are responsible for-business, user, functional, and nonfunctional. For example, make sure users have input to the user requirements. Along with providing buy-in from each group, you gather more accurate data since each group knows best what they do and what they need.

   Changes to requirements are expected as a result of ongoing monitoring and control activities. The key is following a structured change control management procedure for all changes.

    When writing requirements, make sure that they are:

° Unambiguous and can be interpreted in the same manner by anyone.

« Consistent and not contradicting other requirements.

• Complete and appearing in one place without additional research.

° Realistic in terms of available money, resources, and time.

« Verifiable through inspection, analysis, demonstration, or testing.

Identify Roles

Here are the roles requirements play in each phase of the project life cycle:

   In the definition and planning phase, requirements help identify all stakeholders; dictate the development of scope, timeline, cost, and resource needs; and ensures you have the right timeline, budget, skill sets, and training needs..

   In the design phase, requirements guide the creation of formal specifications and improve the ability to make decisions and design a more efficient solution.

   In the development phase, requirements provide a solid foundation upon which to build to stakeholder and user expectations and allow you to avoid re-work, implement an effective change control management plan, and define a test plan.

   In the validation phase, requirements serve as the benchmark against which the end product is evaluated and allow you to compare the end product against specifications and user requirements.

   In the implementation phase, requirements dictate how to implement the end product and ensure delivery in the way stakeholders expect.

Defining Requirements: Summary

Catherine Tomczyk, PMP, has stated “A PM will spend a significant part of their time collecting and managing requirements. And yet, at the end of a project, if anything has gone awry, the root cause is almost always that there was not enough time spent on requirements.” (Tomczyk, page 35). Although she was referring more specifically to small projects, the message remains the same: Take the time to define the requirements well and you will improve opportunities for success throughout the project.

TOPIC 2: ORGANIZATIONAL MATURITY________________________

What role can the Project Management Maturity Level play in project management quality and success?

Figure of Project Management Maturity Model

This figure illustrates five levels of project management maturity.

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Text Box: TranscriptLevel 1 refers to ad hoc project management.

    Level 2 refers to formal application of project management.

    Level 3 refers to institutionalization of project management.

    Level 4 refers to management of the project management system.

    Level 5 refers to optimization of project management systems.

Before you can influence improvements, you must understand the environment in which the improvements will exist. In this part of the simulation, you will have an opportunity to review what Aaron learned about the relationship between the level of an organization’s project management maturity and successful projects.

Complete the following:

    Consult Project Managers to learn about some of their experiences.

    Consult Aaron to review his recommendations.

Resources

Kay

Working with offshore resources has been one of the greatest tests of our organization’s maturity level. Sharing responsibility for development with resources working on different shifts has caused us all to elevate our commitment to process, communication, and delivery. I think the ability to effectively manage outsourced resources is a sign of a high-level of PM maturity.

Conrad

Demonstrating the financial return for improving our project management practices was the best way I found to obtain the support and involvement we needed from corporate management. Once they understood the financial implications, they were willing to provide definite and visible support for project management improvements.

Joan

I knew I was working for an organization that was operating at a lower maturity level when they put a project out for bid, but neglected to include internal costs as part of the total project cost. They were surprised by the amount of time it took their internal resources to support the project.

Matthew

I get concerned when I see a reluctance to participate in our PM methodology. Although the process may feel tedious at times, it helps uncover important elements that would otherwise be missed. The process itself may even be more important than some of the documents produced, but always, people are the key-the best tools in the world are useless if leadership does not support them and encourage the project participants and contributors to use them.

Aaron’s Recommendations

Aaron understood that before you can influence improvements, you must understand the environment in which the improvements will exist. Together with what the other project managers had learned about

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Text Box: Transcriptthe relationship between the level of an organization’s project management maturity and successful projects, Aaron selected the following as best practices for Keystone Management.

   Adopt a maturity model for your organization to serve as a guide to implementing best practices and measuring progress.

   A good communications plan is often linked to organizational planning and the successful implementation of strategies that promote growth within project management maturity.

   Establishing standards and a best practices repository sets up a measurement system. This system provides a source of information for continuous improvement and advancement in the organization’s PM maturity level.

   Use of a PM Information System, such as MS Project, provides an automated system that monitors and controls the execution of planned and scheduled work. In a highly mature organization, the more these techniques are used, the more the system can support forecasting.

Identify Benefits

Here are the benefits you might expect from using each of the following techniques to improve an organization’s PM maturity level:

   The Project Management Office (PMO) leads and supports planning, management, and execution of all projects..

   A project management communications strategy supports organizational planning and dissemination of information and facilitates stakeholder participation and ownership.

   Formal project management methodology establishes consistent, repeatable processes and methodologies to manage scope, cost, time, and quality.

   A standards and best practices repository provides a source of information for continuous improvement and advancement in the project management maturity level for an organization.

   Portfolio management supports the ability to select, prioritize, manage, and execute projects based on organizational priorities, strategies, and initiatives.

Organizational Maturity: Summary

With a goal of building a powerful foundation for company improvement, the project management maturity model was designed to help organizations improve their maturity levels through the following activities:

     Assess the maturity of current project management processes.

     Identify a logical path to improve processes.

     Set priorities to achieve short-term improvements.

     Measure progress along the maturity curve.

     Establish a culture that supports your commitment to project management excellence.

TOPIC 3: TRIPLE CONSTRAINTS_________________________

What strategies might you consider to manage the triple constraints of scope, time, and cost? Figure of the Project Management Triple Constraint Pyramid

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Text Box: TranscriptThis figure illustrates that quality is constrained within the three sides of the pyramid representing scope, time, and cost.

Managing the competing demands of all stakeholders, both within and outside the organization, is one of the key responsibilities of the project manager.

Complete the following:

    Consult Project Managers to learn about some of their experiences.

    Consult Aaron to review his recommendations.

Resources

Kay

I once worked on a project that did not have a scope change control plan. Changes were initiated by stakeholders, users, and even developers without my knowledge. I had to establish a scope change control plan in the middle of the project to rein in changes out of scope in order to have any hope of meeting the project requirements, deadlines, and budget.

Conrad

I have found that a clear project charter is very useful when faced with conflicting priorities. I have been able to negotiate additional resources by reminding key stakeholders of the purpose for the project and the commitment that was made across the organization to its success.

Joan

My advice regarding scope creep is to make sure you have a solid change control plan that everyone agrees to early in the project. I have also found it very useful to be clear about why the dates are important. Being clear about dates helps everyone to recognize the domino effect individual projects have throughout the organization.

Matthew

We recently used a project priority matrix to identify, and agree on, the constraints to restrain, enhance, and accept for a particular project. This helped me negotiate changes as needed with appropriate stakeholders.

Aaron’s Recommendations

Aaron’s experience has taught him that managing the competing demands of all stakeholders, both within and outside the organization, is one of the key responsibilities of the project manager. Based on the experience of the other project managers as well, Aaron selected the following as best practices for Keystone Management.

   Audit and assess the management of your project’s triple constraints to create best practices for your organization.

   Use a Scope Management Plan to ensure the project includes all work required, and only work required. Specify in-scope, out-of-scope, and future scope items.

   Clearly define the Work Breakdown Structure so you can effectively plan, schedule, budget, and share project information appropriate to the stakeholder’s position in the organization.

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Text Box: TranscriptGuard against scope creep by clearly differentiating between what is in scope and what is out of scope, using either the scope statement or the project assumptions.

     Define risks and the corresponding risk management plan early in the project cycle.

Identify Benefits

Here are the benefits you might expect from using each of the following techniques to manage the triple constraints:

   The project charter defines the project mission, objectives, and deliverables, as well as how participants behave on a project team (roles and responsibilities, communication expectations, rules of conduct, and the decision-making process).

   The change management system provides a standardized process to centrally document and respond to changes that affect scope, budget, and schedule.

   A work breakdown structure (WBS) links all levels in the organization, major deliverables, and all work and makes all project changes traceable.

   The scope management plan defines what you expect to deliver and supports the ability to plan and measure project results in specific, tangible, and measurable terms.

              A critical path method determines amount of scheduling flexibility and predicts project duration.

Triple Constraints: Summary

Since large changes may be easily identified, it can be the minor enhancements identified by the customer and even developers throughout the project, enhancements commonly referred to as scope creep, that may be the most difficult to track. The key to preventing these minor enhancements is vigilant change management, beginning with a well-defined scope statement.

TOPIC 4: MONITORING AND CONTROL TECHNIQUES___________

What techniques are most effective for monitoring and controlling project schedules and activity?

Figure of a Project Schedule

This figure represents a project schedule diagram indicating planned, actual, and critical path activity.

Although you may be able to control smaller projects in an informal manner by observation and informal discussions, large projects will need formal control processes.

Complete the following:

     Consult Project Managers to learn about some of their experiences.

     Consult Aaron to review his recommendations.

Resources

Kay

A mature and committed project manager is willing to use the information obtained through baseline measurements to make necessary changes to the project plan, even to the point of renegotiating the contract if necessary, rather than covering up issues and problems.

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Text Box: TranscriptConrad

I have seen situations in which the project numbers were massaged so there were essentially two sets of books – the official ones that were reported to stakeholders and the other working version. From my perspective, there is nothing worse than waiting until the final weeks or days of a long project to find out that there will be a significant delay.

Joan

I was a team member on a project for which unrealistic activity durations were calculated by someone who did not understand the tasks. Fortunately someone new took over and recalculated the required work periods. We were then able to determine realistic activity sequences, durations, and resource requirements.

Matthew

The first time I used an integrated change control plan I knew it was worth the effort. It helped me set a baseline plan, measure progress and performance, compare project plan against actual, and determine corrective action requirements.

Aaron’s Recommendations

Aaron has learned that although you may be able to control smaller projects in an informal manner by observation and informal discussions, large project need formal control processes. Aaron based the following recommendations for Keystone Management on his own experience and that of the other project managers he interviewed.

   Include milestones in the sequence of activities to ensure the requirements for meeting the milestones are met..

    Clarify performance measurement baselines for scope, schedule, and cost..

    Create an accurate activities sequence to support realistic and achievable schedules.

    Manage schedule changes with a Schedule Management Plan that includes the following:

° The schedule baseline.

° Documentation of how schedule variances will be managed.

° Identification of schedule change control procedures.

° Definition of appropriate performance measures.

Identify Benefits

Here are the benefits you might expect from using each of the following techniques for monitoring and controlling projects:

   A risk management plan identifies alternative strategies for ensuring project success if specified risk events occur.

   A project management information system is software that supports planning, monitoring, and controlling the project, including cost estimating, scheduling, communication, collaboration, configuration management, document control, records management, and risk analysis.

   Earned value technique integrates a project’s scope, schedule, and cost into a unified set of metrics, a performance measurement baseline is established that supports objectively measuring the level of work throughout the project.

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Text Box: TranscriptProject portfolio management enables organizations to combine proposed and existing investments in order to properly assess the allocation of limited resources, time, and budget.

   Status reports support communication between stakeholders and project staff regarding baseline performance measures.

Monitoring and Control Techniques: Summary

A variety of tools are available to support efforts to monitor and control projects. These tools can range in complexity and in how they are used for a particular project or organization. Some tools may be as simple as status reports to sophisticated project management information systems and customized methodologies which are often coordinated by centralized project management departments. The key is to actively gather project performance data, analyze it, and make adjustments as necessary.

TOPIC 5: RISK, QUALITY, AND CHANGE CONTROL MANAGEMENT

What strategies might you consider to manage risk, quality, and change within a project?

Figure of the Change Control Process

This figure illustrates the activity flow during the change control process.

    The process is initiated by identifying the change and documenting the request.

    It proceeds to the next step which is to submit the change request form.

    The next step is to review the change request form.

   The fourth step requires a decision on whether the change is approved or not. If it is approved the process continues. If not, it returns to the second step of submitting the change request form.

    The fifth step requires an update to the project plan.

    The final step indicates that the change is communicated to all affected parties.

Managing change is a key role of the project manager. Use of a structured change control system clarifies the process for documenting, reporting, and managing changes to the project.

Complete the following:

   Consult Project Managers to learn about some of their experiences with the change control process.

    Consult Aaron to review his recommendations for the change control process.

Resources

Kay

Risk management is critical in that it establishes procedures to monitor and control risks, which minimizes the severity of impact to the process or product. However, I have found that simply defining a risk management plan is not enough. Without clearly defined roles and responsibilities assigned to risk management, the process itself is in jeopardy.

Conrad

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A well-defined communications plan facilitates involvement from all parties. While individual project contributors may need more detailed and frequent project updates, upper-level stakeholders are assured of receiving critical updates in time to make adjustments to the project as needed.

Joan

Assumptions are a huge risk to a project’s success. Efforts should be made to identify, document, and verify assumptions as early in the project process as possible.

Matthew

I found an escalation plan a very useful tool in managing projects. By clearly defining evaluation metrics and both acceptable and out of tolerance values it was much easier to determine how to respond to change requests and variances.

Aaron’s Recommendations

While defining recommendations for managing scope, Aaron determined that managing change is critical to scope management. Together with the other project managers, he also explored options for managing risk and quality as well. Based on that work, Aaron selected the following as best practices for Keystone Management.

   Adopt a quality management plan that includes specific strategies for maintaining quality, such as testing procedures and acceptance criteria.

   Create a risk management plan that includes strategies for identifying risks, analyzing their probability and impact, and monitoring and responding to the risks.

   Adopt a communications plan that specifies the information needs of all team members and stakeholders and the process that will be used to share this information.

   Implement an integrated change control management plan that identifies, analyzes, and manages changes in a way that supports organizational goals and priorities.

Identify Benefits

Here are the benefits you might expect from using each of the following techniques for managing risks, quality, and change control:

   A risk management plan defines how risks will be monitored, assessed, and managed. It includes an assessment of the probability the event will occur and the severity of impact if it occurs.

   Project configuration management establishes and maintains consistency of project performance as well as functional and physical attributes with respect to requirements, design, development, and operational information. It applies technical and administrative direction and surveillance to determine if appropriate controls are in place.

   A quality management plan defines the evaluation criteria that is used on a regular basis to compare project performance against quality standards and metrics.

   Team meetings provide a forum to share information between team members regarding project status, issues, and changes.

Risk, Quality, and Change Control Management: Summary

As you may have experienced, through projects that have gone well and those that have not, the key to successful management is planning. Defining the procedures for managing risk, quality, and change at

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Text Box: Transcriptthe beginning of the project helps establish expectations, performance criteria, and response requirements.

TOPIC 6: PROJECT CLOSURE____________________________________

How can thorough project closure activities contribute to continuous process improvement?

As organizations seek continuous process improvement, regular project audits are a useful approach for gathering the information you will need to identify improvement opportunities.

Complete the following:

    Consult Project Managers to learn about some of their experiences with project audits.

    Consult Aaron to review his recommendations for project audits.

Resources

Kay

At my previous company, we held post-mortems for all our projects. I think one of the things that made them successful is that management was not allowed to attend them. In our post-mortems, we used facilitators skilled at communicating the goal of improving our process and encouraging ideas for improvement.

Conrad

Since team members are often already busy working on the next project by the time the first project ends, they can be skeptical of spending much time contributing to lessons learned unless they feel their ideas are actually being used as input for improvements.

Joan

I think ownership is the key to meaningful project closure activities. If the team feels that they own the process and the tools, they are much more likely to reflect thoughtfully about the experience.

Matthew

Keep in mind that real, meaningful process change takes time. If your processes are in a constant state of change, team members lose interest in thinking about the process since they expect that it will change before their suggestions can even be considered.

Aaron’s Recommendations

Although Aaron knows that formal project closure activities are often skipped, often because the group has already moved on to the next project, he also recognizes the value of gathering information in this phase of the project that is needed to identify improvement opportunities. The following recommendations are based on his experience and the insights gathered through his conversation with other project managers.

   Use regular project audits to identify projects that will have a different ending than the one described in the scope statement.

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   Use the Lessons Learned technique to document mistakes to avoid and document successes to repeat-not necessarily recommendations.

   Use independent resources to complete audits.

   Focus project audits, especially for active projects, on issues, problems, and successes.

Identify Benefits

Here are the benefits you might expect from using each of the following techniques as part of project closure activities:

   A project management maturity model provides a good measure of organizational project management performance and improvement. It also eases advancement of organizational goals by strategically applying principles and practices to individual projects.

   A post-project status meeting provides a forum to discuss project closing activities, gather insights, determine if additional monitoring is required, and verify completion of administration activities.

   Lessons learned captures the processes that worked well and processes that could be improved for future reference.

   The project sign-off document secures sign-off from all stakeholders.

Project Closure: Summary

Now that you have completed the project, do not forget to celebrate your project successes as well as your efforts and accomplishments related to the process, such as team-building, problem-solving, and communication!

 

 
   

REFERENCES Tomczyk, C. (2005). Project manager’s spotlight on planning. Alameda, CA: Harbor Light Press, p. 35.

 

 
   

Subject Matter Expert: Suzanne Richins Instructional Design: Patricia Danielson Interactive Design: Kerry Hanson Project Management: Alan Campbell

 

   

CREDITS

 

 
 
   

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

 

 
   

 

 

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Credits

 

 
   

PM PROCESSES, PROCESS GROUPS, AND KNOWLEDGE AREAS

 

 
   

Mapping of the 41 project management processes into the five Project Management Process Groups and the nine Project Management Knowledge Areas. Each process is shown in the Process Group in which most of the activity takes place.

 

 
   

Knowledge Area Processes

Initiating Process Group

Planning Process Group

Executing Process Group

Monitoring and Controlling Process Group

Closing Process Group

Project

Integration

Management

• Develop Project Charter

• Develop Project Management Plan

• Direct and Manage Project Execution

   Monitor and Control Project Work

   Perform Integrated Change Control

• Close Project or Phase

Project Scope Management

 

   Collect Requirements

   Define Scope

   Create WBS

 

   Verify Scope

   Control Scope

 

Project Time Management

 

   Define Activities

   Sequence Activities

   Estimate Activity Resources

   Estimate Activity Durations

   Develop Schedule

 

• Control Schedule

 

Project Cost Management

 

   Estimate Costs

   Determine Budget

 

• Control Costs

 

Project Quality Management

 

• Plan Quality

• Perform Quality Assurance

• Perform Quality Control

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

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Knowledge Area Processes

Initiating Process Group

Planning Process Group

Executing Process Group

Monitoring and Controlling Process Group

Closing Process Group

Project Human

Resource

Management

 

• Develop Human Resource Plan

   Acquire Project Team

   Develop Project Team

   Manage Project Team

 

 

Project

Communications

Management

• Identify Stakeholders

• Plan Communications

   Distribute Information

   Manage Stakeholder Expectations

• Report Performance

 

Project Risk Management

 

   Plan Risk Management

   Identify Risks

   Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis

   Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis

   Plan Risk Responses

 

• Monitor and Control Risks

 

Project

Procurement

Management

 

• Plan Procurements

• Conduct Procurements

• Administer Procurements

• Close Procurements

 


 

CREDITS

Text Box: CREDITSREFERENCES Project Management Institute. (2013). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK© Guide) – Fifth Edition. Newtown Square. PA.

Subject Matter Expert: Haziel Matias Interactive Design: Tara Schiller Instructional Designer: Linda Grant Project Manager: Alan Campbell

4/12/2018

Text Box: 4/12/2018Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

http://media.capella.edu/CourseMedia/TS5333/PM_Processes/Updated/new_ts.html

Baseline Management and Staffing Plans Scoring Guide

CRITERIA

NON-PERFORMANCE

BASIC

PROFICIENT

DISTINGUISHED

Develop a responsibility assignment matrix for a project.

Does not develop a responsibility assignment matrix for a project.

Develops a responsibility assignment matrix for a project, but the matrix is unclear or incomplete.

Develops a responsibility assignment matrix for a project.

Develops a responsibility assignment matrix for a project, and identifies assumptions on which the assignments are based.

Write clearly and concisely in a form and style consistent with professional health

administration project management communications.

Does not write clearly and concisely in a form and style consistent with professional health administration project management communications.

Does not meet applicable formatting requirements or writing lacks clarity and cohesiveness that inhibits clear expression.

Write clearly and concisely in a form and style consistent with professional health administration project management communications.

Writes clearly and concisely in a form and style consistent with professional health administration project management communications. Source attributions are correctly formatted. Grammar and mechanics are virtually error free.

Analyze the team leadership strategies that promote successful project execution.

Does not analyze the team leadership strategies that promote successful project execution.

Analyzes the team leadership strategies that promote successful project execution, but the analysis is unclear or incomplete,

Analyzes the team leadership strategies that promote successful project execution.

Analyzes the team leadership strategies that promote successful project execution and suggests criteria that could be used to evaluate successful project execution.

Analyze the team development strategies that promote successful project execution.

Does not analyze the team development strategies that promote successful project execution.

Analyzes the team development strategies that promote successful project execution, but the analysis is unclear or incomplete.

Analyze the team development strategies that promote successful project execution.

Analyzes the team development strategies that promote successful project execution, and suggests criteria that could be used to assess the team’s performance and cohesiveness.

Develop a baseline management and staffing plan that reflects the workplace organizational design and leadership strategies.

Does not develop a baseline

management and staffing plan that reflects the workplace organizational design and leadership strategies.

Develops a baseline

management and staffing plan that reflects the workplace organizational design and leadership strategies, but the plan is unclear or incomplete.

Develops a baseline management and staffing plan that reflects the workplace

organizational design and leadership strategies.

Develops a baseline management and staffing plan that reflects the workplace organizational design and leadership strategies, and identifies criteria that could be used to evaluate the plan.

 


 

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