Custom Written Essay on Introduction to Educational Research

By December 6, 2018Academic Papers
Introduction to Educational Research
Module 2: Foundation concepts
· This task accounts for 20% of the total unit grade · Read the learning outcomes. · The main source is: Johnson and Christensen (2010), Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches, Fourth Edition. You have to read it before you answer as written before each question. · answer all questions · write concisely · type your answer to each question in the space indicated · in submitting this task you make the following declaration
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Question Learning outcome Source
1 Understands that reliability is a necessary but not sufficient characteristic of a good quantitative measurement and can identify and explain the different means of assessing it [K6.1]. Ch. 6 pp. 138-143 Johnson and Christensen (2010)
1) Hattie (2003) used evidence from interview, observation, transcripts, surveys and
artefacts to assess the 16 dimensions that distinguished expert from experienced
teachers. The data from these multiple sources was synthesised into a numeric single
score on each dimension.
“All this material was then reviewed for completeness, and sorted into specific tasks.
Twenty-two trained scorers then reviewed each piece of material and coded it along
the 16 dimensions, using a four-point scale. Levels 1 and 2 described performances
that were not characteristics of expert teachers for that dimension, and Levels 3 and 4
described performances that were characteristics of expert teachers.” p12
Hattie (2003) provides a table of inter-rater agreement for some of these dimensions
(see below).
Dimensions Inter-rater correlation
Challenge .87
Classroom climate .88
Deep representations .79
Deep understanding and accomplishment .84
Improvisation .95
Monitor learning and provide Feedback .87
Multidimensional perception .88
Passion .90
Problem solving .83
Respect .81
Sensitivity to context .62
Test Hypotheses .37
Use of knowledge .72
What form of reliability do these correlations address? Why is it important that this be
Hattie, J., (2003), Teachers make a difference: what is the research evidence?
(retrieved April 4, 2013)
Reliability refers to how consistent any measure is. In the case of studies in research, a
test is reliable if the same or nearly similar results are obtained consistently. The
correlations that have been obtained in this case represent inter-rater reliability. This
type of reliability takes place by having a pair of judges who are independent to set the
scores for the tests given. The scores that the two judges give are then analysed and
compared in order to determine how consistent the given results are. This form of
reliability is often used due to its high rates of accuracy. This is mainly because the presence of the two independent judges limits the occurrence of bias during the test analysis. The inter-rater correlations obtained should be very high. High correlations show that the independent judges in question share the same opinions with regard to the test in question. Large variations in the correlations obtained shoes that the results obtained are not completely accurate. Given that the two individuals are observed the very same scenario, it is reasonably expected that their observations should not vary significantly. Small variations are expected, since the personal opinions and beliefs of the two individuals in question differ. However, after the computation of the correlation values, it is expected that the test should have an inter-rater reliability rate of about 80%. Therefore, high inter-correlations signify higher rates of accuracy in the tests conducted.
Question Learning outcome Source
2 Understands that measurement validity is a necessary but not sufficient characteristic of a good quantitative measurement and can identify and explain the different means of assessing it [K6.2]. Johnson and Christensen (2010) Ch. 6 pp. 143-149
2) In Lizzio and Wilson’s (2005) second study, they constructed a questionnaire to
investigate “students’ perceptions of learning group functioning” p381.
They offered two lines of evidence to suggest that this was a valid instrument.
Firstly they say that “Questionnaire items were developed for the seven process
domains identified in Study 1…….Where possible, the wording of items was based on
specific responses or examples provided by students” p382.
Secondly, they subjected the responses of their sample to factor analysis.
What aspects of measurement validity do these two lines of evidence support? What
else could they have done to demonstrate the validity of the instrument?
(NB: A good answer might begin with a brief discussion of what measurement validity
is and why it is important).
Lizzio, A. & Wilson, K. (2005) ‘Self-Managed Learning Groups in Higher Education:
Students’ Perceptions of Process and Outcomes’, British Journal of Educational
Psychology 75: 373–90.
The validity of any measurement refers to the degree it measures whatever aspect it is
required to measure. In most cases, measurement validity is referred to as construct
validity. There are several types of validity. They are grouped based on what they are
investigating. They include face validity, content validity, criterion validity and
discriminant validity. The process of evaluating validity has to be dome critically and
carefully in order to ensure that the results obtained are exhaustive and accurate. This
will result in proper discussion of the results leading to precise conclusions obtained
from the data. Face validity as the name suggests is based on the extent to which the
measurement in question measures the general appearance matter at hand. This
method provides very weak evidence and is not used in very technical studies. Content
validity is the measurement of the behaviours feelings and thoughts that the subjects
taking part in the study have towards something. This method is more accurate than
the face validity. Criterion validity is the measurement of scores of particular
individuals for instance with relation to alternative variables that are of the same kind.
Finally, discriminant validity refers to the degree to which the scores of the subjects
differs from the other data provided. It is the complete opposite of criterion validity.
These two lines of evidence support that the type of measurement validity that has
been used is content validity. As noted before, content validity includes the
measurement of the extent of personal behaviour and opinions with relation to the
matter in question. In this case, the questionnaires were developed for the sole purpose
of finding out the perceptions that the students had of learning groups and how they
function. Therefore, the study is measuring the opinions of the students in line with the
variables considered in content validity. In order to demonstrate the validity of the
instrument, they could have considered the use of additional learning aspects such as
external assessments of the groups in question instead of only focusing on the data
from the student self-reports.
Question Learning outcome Source
3 Understands that reliability is a necessary but not sufficient characteristic of a good quantitative measurement and can identify and explain the different means of assessing it [K6.1]. Johnson and Christensen (2010) Ch. 6 pp. 138-143
3) Lizzio and Wilson (2005) say that “Both factors evidenced high levels of internal consistency. For Factor 1, Cronbach’s α= was .95; for Factor 2, Cronbach’s α=:87.” (p383) What do they mean by this, and why is it important to establish that the instrument has high levels of internal consistency? Is there any reason why we should be cautious in our interpretation of these statistics? Lizzio, A. & Wilson, K. (2005) ‘Self-Managed Learning Groups in Higher Education: Students’ Perceptions of Process and Outcomes’, British Journal of Educational Psychology 75: 373–90
Internal consistency is ordinarily used in research and statistics. It refers to
measurements based on correlations that different items have on the same test. It is
done in order to determine if different items that suggest to measure comparable
matters produce similar scores in this test. Internal consistency is measured using
Cronbach’s alpha, depicted as α. Values of internal consistency range between zero
and one. This range is further divided into smaller groups with narrower range values.
The values are rated as unacceptable, poor, questionable, acceptable, good and
excellent. In most cases, extremely high reliabilities are considered very undesirable.
Such values are those that are over 0.95. They are an indication that the items that are
being investigated are redundant.
From the data provided, the two values provided for the Cronbach’s alpha are an
illustration of the correlation that the two factors in question have.
It is important to establish that the instrument has high levels of internal consistency,
as it is a direct representation of the accuracy of the process. However, it should be
noted that as much as high values show increased accuracy, very high values may be
an illustration of redundancy and are, therefore, detrimental.
During the interpretation of these results, one should be very cautious. This Is mainly
because one of the values provided, that of factor 1 has a very high value, As
previously explained, this may be a portrayal of redundancy in the test. For this
reason, the results should be critically analysed before any conclusions derived from
Question Learning outcome Source
4 Can employ the principles of questionnaire construction to construct an instrument consisting of summated rating scales [K5.1] Johnson and Christensen (2010) Ch. 7 pp. 161-192
4) Lizzio and Wilson (2005) conducted a mixed methods study that examined students’ perceptions of self-managed learning groups. The first, qualitative, study used data derived from “students’ written reflections, staff members’ observations, and interviews with individual students” (p378) in order to develop an “understanding of students’ experiences and perceptions of the range of issues that affected the productivity, and satisfaction of their learning groups” (p377). The analysis revealed seven domains that define the students’ experiences; staff support, contextual fit, task focus, equity and responsibility, managing differences, cooperation and collaboration, process learning (see table 1 p380). The second, non-experimental quantitative, study used a questionnaire with items representing these seven domains to explore the perceptions of a larger group of students. They applied a factor analytic technique to the resulting data and this identified two dimensions that describe students’ attitudes to self-managed groups; personal responsibility and collaborative climate, and staff support and environmental fit. The items that make up these factors are shown in table 3 and the factors themselves are described in the text (NB not all of the original items were useful in describing student perceptions). A lecturer has recently implemented self-managed groups in her unit and wishes to evaluate her students’ perceptions and experiences. However, she wants a new questionnaire developed which is shorter than the 23 items identified as being important by Lizzio and Wilson’s (2005). Your task is to develop a questionnaire containing 8 rating scale type items which meet the lecturer’s purpose, and you should draw your inspiration from the items identified in Lizzio and Wilson (2005, pp 383-385). · For each item list the item stem (the words forming the question or statement) and the response categories for each rating scale. Please do not try to format this as a questionnaire, simply list each item stem and its corresponding response categories. · Explain why the ideas you have chosen are important for gauging student perceptions and experiences and · Comment on the principles you followed in designing the items (i.e. both the stems and the response categories). Lizzio, A. & Wilson, K. (2005) ‘Self-Managed Learning Groups in Higher Education:
Students’ Perceptions of Process and Outcomes’, British Journal of Educational Psychology 75: 373–90.
1. Do you think that you are appropriately helped by the staff (in terms of their
availability and their response)?
a) Yes, they are extremely helpful in both cases
b) Yes but they can improve on the their availability
c) Yes but they can improve on their response to the students
d) No they are not helpful in any way
e) No response
2. Is your group equipped with members who are effective in carrying out the
tasks given?
a) All the group members are capable of performing the tasks
b) More than half of the members are capable of performing the tasks
c) A majority of the members are not able to perform the tasks given
d) All the members are completely unable to perform the tasks given
3. Does the learning group fit into the learning context of this subject?
a) Yes, it is in line with the subject context in all aspects
b) Yes it is in line with the subject context in some aspects
c) No, it is not in line with the subject in question at all
d) No response
4. Is the learning group congruent with the subject in question?
a) Yes, the group is congruent with the subject taught
b) The group is partly congruent with the subject taught
c) No, the group is not congruent with the subject taught
d) No response
5. Does the group lead to more productivity in this class?
a) Yes, the group has led to significant productivity in the subject
b) Yes, the subject has led to some productivity in the subject
c) No the subject has not led to any increase in the productivity
d) No response
6. Do you think that your group is fair and just in its activities?
a) Yes, the group is very fair in its activity
b) The group is fair to some extent in its activity
c) The group is not fair in its activity
d) No response
7. Does the group manage their differences appropriately in order to cooperate in
the tasks given?
a) Yes, all differences are managed appropriately leading to complete
cooperation in group work
b) The differences are managed appropriately most but not all of the time
c) Differences are not managed and this affects collaboration in the group
d) No response
8. Has the group personally affected you in any way?
a) The group has positively influenced my learning experience in all aspects
b) The group has positively influenced my learning experience In some but
not all aspects
c) The group has negatively affected my learning experience
d) The group has not affected my learning experience in any way
The eight aspects selected are very important in the gauging of the effects that the
learning groups have on the students in question. If each of them is carefully
considered, all the instructors will be able to ensure that all their students benefit fully from the use of these educational groups. In order to design both the stems and the responses, I considered the most important aspects that should be considered. These aspects were obtained from the initial 23 that had been brought forth in Lizzio and Wilson. In the case of the responses, I put myself in the position of the student in order to obtain the most appropriate responses that most of them would provide.
Question Learning outcome Source
5 Understands the characteristics of the various types of qualitative interview, their strengths and weaknesses and the circumstances in which they are best used [K5.2]. Johnson and Christensen (2010) Ch. 8, pp. 202-204
5) Sumsion (2005) studied the “impact of male early childhood educators….. On
children’s constructions and enactment of gender.” She asked children in Bill’s class
to draw a picture of him and then conducted “interviews [which] typically lasted 5–10
min although some extended to15 min. Questions woven into our conversations
included: Can you tell about your drawing? What does Bill do at preschool? Is there
anything that you especially like to do 116 with Bill? Do you think Bill is a good
teacher? Why/why not? I jotted down verbatim, as far as possible, their responses to
these questions on a prepared interview response pro forma.” (pp115-116)
What type of interview is this and what are its strengths and weaknesses? In your
opinion, did Sumsion make the “right” choice or do you think that it would have been
better for her to use another form of interview (i.e. greater strengths and fewer
weaknesses for this particular purpose)?
Sumsion, J. (2005). Male teachers in early childhood education: issues and case study.
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 20(1), 109–123.
The type of interview that she has used in this case is the face-to-face interview. This
is evidenced by the fact that she talked directly to the children in order to obtain their
opinion with regard to the drawings that they had made of their teacher Bill. Face-to-
face interviews are very common for instance in the case of job interviews. They have
several advantages and disadvantages. Face-to-face interviews are beneficial since
they enable the researcher to obtain the information required immediately. This is
because once the question is asked, the respondent answers it immediately. Apart from
this, when conducting the interview, the researcher is able to notice the facial
expressions and the gestures of the respondent. This results on the provisional of vital
additional information. Social cues like the body language and the voice intonation are
also observable during this kind of interview, which is beneficial to the collection of
information. During a face-to-face interview, the session can be recorded if the
respondent allows it. This leads to the acquisition of more accurate information as
opposed to the use of notes. The researcher in this case id able to make the respondent
more relaxed especially in the case of children. This enables them to provide answers
that are more truthful. Finally, while compared to methods like questionnaires, the
researcher is assured of a response from the respondent. In some cases, questionnaires
are never answered and are instead ignored.
The greatest disadvantage of this method of interviewing is that it is very time
consuming. This is because the researcher has to speak to all the respondents
individually and this may take a very long time. In the case of other methods like
questionnaires, all can be given at the same time and after a short while; they are all
collected for analysis. Apart from this, face-to-face interviews are very costly since the
researchers have to travel to the locations where the respondents reside. Another
disadvantage associated with this method is the inaccuracy of the notes obtained
during the interview. Researchers are not able to make precise notes since they have to
listen to the respondents as well. As a result, they often exclude some information that may be vital to the study in question. In my opinion, Simsion made the right choice in using face-to face interviews. This is especially because she was dealing with children. This interview method had more advantages than disadvantages in her case.
Question Learning outcome Source
6 Understands the characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of the various types of qualitative interview techniques [K5.3] Johnson and Christensen (2010) Ch. 8 pp. 202-204
6) In his study on teacher expertise Hattie (2003) interviewed teachers before and after
a lesson was taught. The interview questions are listed below
– What did you think about as you planned?
– What factors influenced your planning?
– If one of your students had difficultly understanding (specific content from
lesson observed), what are some suggestions you could generate for helping
him/her to make connections?
– What were the most important decisions you made during today’s lessons?
– What influenced your lesson planning?
– What expectation do you have for [student’s name]
– How does [student’s name] approach to learning vary from day to day?
– Would you rate this lesson as successful? Why or why not?
– How else could the lesson have gone?
– What particular things do you want to accomplish as teacher?
What type of interview was this (please give reasons for your choice)? What other
types of interviews could have been conducted and what are their characteristics? Why
do you think Hattie chose the form of interview he did?
Hattie, J., (2003), Teachers make a difference: what is the research evidence?
(retrieved April 4, 2013)
This is the face-to-face interview method. This is supported by the fact that Hattie
asked the questions personally to the teacher in question. This is the very description
of a face-to-face interview. Other interviews that could have been conducted include
telephone interviews and video conferencing
Telephone interviews are those conducted over the phone. They are ordinarily very
short and direct to the point. The participating parties offer precise answers in order to
minimize the costs involved. Such interviews are not common and are used only in
dire occasions for instance if the two individuals are not in close proximity. In addition
to this, the use of this method is not advisable since communication errors may arise
due to connectivity problems. For this reason, the use of telephone interviews is often
Video conferencing involves the use of the internet and video technology to facilitate
communication. As much as these interviews are also costly, they are not as rushed as
the telephone interviews. The participants are, therefore, able to exhaustively cover all
the questions that they may have. Apart from this, the people are able to observe the
body language and other non-verbal cues. These are a viable addition to the interview since they provide more information about the person being interviewed. It is for this reason that the video-conferencing interviews are common. I think that Hattie selected this particular interview method since it has several advantages. For instance, he will be able to obtain the responses to the questions immediately and he will save a lot of time as compared to other methods. Also, he will be able to obtain additional information from the teacher from facial expressions and gestures; this would not have been obtained if he used any other means. The face-to-face interview is also appropriate since the respondents may at times provide more information hat s required as they answer and this may be an invaluable addition to the research process.
Question Learning outcome Source
7 Understands the general purpose of observational methods, their strengths and weaknesses and how they can be used to complement self-report techniques [K5.4]. Johnson and Christensen (2010) Ch. 8, pp. 206-208
7) Stipek and Byler (2004) argue that “Research examining the effects of different mixes of instructional approaches on child outcomes is needed to guide practice. Although studies have examined the effects of specific instructional strategies on children’s reading and mathematics skills, often in experimental settings, global measures of classroom instruction are lacking. We describe here a measure, designed to be appropriate for classrooms serving children from the age of 4–7 years, which assesses instructional practices as well as management and the social climate. The new measure focuses more on how instruction is done than on the content of instruction, although the two are often connected. For example, teachers who stress the development of letter–sound relationships (content) typically use repetition and practice (strategy). Teachers who stress understanding are more likely to engage students in open-ended conversations about text. Thus, although the measure focuses primarily on the process of instruction, it taps content to some degree.” (p376) Why should they go to all this trouble to construct and validate a quantitative observational measure when all they have to do is ask the teachers what they do? Stipek, D. and Byler, P. (2004), The early childhood classroom observation measure. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19, 375–397.
Observational measures refer to the outcomes that are visible as the name suggests.
Quantitative measures are those that have a physical element to them. When carrying
out a study, the information obtained and observed is vital in the analysis process,
which results in the provision of the implications that the matter may have on the
subject matter.
It was important that they constructed and validated a quantitative observational
measure in this case in order to obtain accurate results with regard to the teaching
practices used. If they had resorted to asking the teachers, most of the teachers would
have lied to them. Subsequently, the research would have been affected since it was
based on false information. In addition to this, by asking the teachers directly, they
would have not been able to obtain some information that was vital to their study.
Missing out on such information would have been a big blow to the research process.
Information that they may have left out include the reasons behind the teaching
practices for instance. This may have occurred since the teachers do not necessarily
know why some practices are selected over others.
For this reason, they had to conduct the research independently in order to make sure
that the conclusions drawn from the study were authentic.
8 Understands the characteristics of the various types of probability sampling techniques used in quantitative research paradigms, their strengths and weaknesses and the purposes for which they are chosen [K4.1]. Johnson and Christensen (2010) Ch. 9 pp. 219-229
8) A group of researchers are interested in examining the attitudes of Early Childhood teachers to the Early Years Learning Framework. “The Early Years Learning Framework describes the principles, practice and outcomes essential to support and enhance young children’s learning from birth to five years of age, as well as their transition to school. The Framework has a strong emphasis on play-based learning, as play is the best vehicle for young children’s learning providing the most appropriate stimulus for brain development. The Framework also recognises the importance of communication and language (including early literacy and numeracy) and social and emotional development.” (Office of Early Childhood Education and Care) They believe that it is important to understand teacher attitudes as these are likely to influence how teachers implement the framework because “each early childhood service will develop their own strategy to implement the Framework, taking their own unique context into consideration.” (Office of Early Childhood Education and Care) The researchers intend to use a questionnaire to collect data from a large sample of teachers, and they want to ensure that the sample includes teachers from different locations (urban, regional, rural) and types of centres (for profit, not for profit). They are seeking your advice to help them determine the optimal sampling procedure for their needs. However, they tell you that there is no published list of Early Childhood teachers, although they can supply you with a list of childcare centres that includes information about size, location and centre type. Describe the procedure you would advise the researchers to employ given that you believe it is important to draw a representative, although not necessarily proportional, sample of teachers. Office of Early Childhood Education and Care, The Early Years Learning Framework, (accessed April 4, 2013)
While conducting a study, a small number of individuals are selected to participate.
The chosen people act as a representation of the entire population. Sampling is done
since it is literally impossible to interview a whole population for instance. It would
be both unreasonable and extremely expensive. Based on the information provided in
this question, the most appropriate sampling method that should be used is quota
sampling. This particular method involves the selection of participants from a
population that is segmented into different smaller groups. This method is applicable in this case since the teachers are grouped based on their school locations and nature of the centres. In order to obtain a sample of teachers since there is no list of all the teachers in the region, several steps have to be followed. If this list had been provided, the names of participating teachers would have been easily selected through random sampling. In this case, they have to identify all the parameters that they need to measure in the study. This will enable them to narrow their scope in the course of the process. After this, they will need to select the teachers who should participate in the study. In this case, the researchers will have to manually identify the teachers in question. For instance, the researcher may select any classroom and interview the teacher they find. It is important to note that this method is not as reliable as random sampling and this may affect the credibility of the results obtained.
Question Learning outcome Source
9 Understands the characteristics of the various types of non-random sampling techniques, their pitfalls and reasons why they are often chosen by researchers [K4.2]. Johnson and Christensen (2010) Ch. 9 pp. 230-232
9) Name the form of sampling Lizzio and Wilson (2005) employ in their study 2 (NB
don’t forget to tell me the reasons for your choice). What are the advantages and
disadvantages of this form of sampling?
Lizzio, A. & Wilson, K. (2005) ‘Self-Managed Learning Groups in Higher Education:
Students’ Perceptions of Process and Outcomes’, British Journal of Educational
Psychology 75: 373–90.
Lizzio and Wilson have employed random sampling in their second study. In random
sampling, all the individuals in the population have the same likelihood of being
selected to participate in the study as opposed to the quota sampling method. The use
of this method is evidenced by the fact that the selected people were not all limited in
any way for instance age. The group that was selected had varying ages, genders and
even levels of study. In order to obtain them, the researchers selected them randomly
in order to ensure that there was no bias involved. This is important since bias affects
the credibility of the results obtained after the study has been conducted.
This sampling method’s main advantage is that it ensures that there is no bias in the
selection process. For this reason, the data obtained is authentic and plausible. In
addition to this, all the members of the population in question have equal chances of
selection and this is another advantage. The selection process is also simplified since
the names of the participants are randomly selected. For this reason, researchers have a
much easier time and this is an advantage. It is also one of the most common sampling
methods and it is considered to be more trustworthy by a great majority of the
population. The use of this method in this case proves to be an added advantage.
The major disadvantage that faces this method is the occurrence of sampling errors. In
such cases, the sample obtained is not a true representation of the population in
question. Such sampling errors mostly occur during the selection process but they may
also take place during the course of the research like during analysis. This is a
common happening especially since computers are used and they are prone to
technological problems at times. For this reason, another disadvantage arises, the
people handling the computers have to be trained in order to avoid any problems and
this is an added expense. As a result, the results from this study will not be accurate.
The sampling process may at times be tedious especially in the case of a large
population. Another disadvantage is that some questions that are specific to sub-
groups such as race may be poorly answered since the population may not have a
significant number of people from that sub-group.
Question Learning outcome Source
10 Understands the characteristics of the various types of sampling techniques used in qualitative research paradigms and the contexts, purposes and research questions for which they are appropriate [K4.3]. Johnson and Christensen (2010) Ch. 9 pp235-239
10) In concluding her article, Sumsion (2005) said “While mindful of the limitations of the study, there appears little evidence to suggest that Bill was perceived by these children to challenge or disrupt traditional constructions of gender. Despite his non-traditional career choice, they did not seem to see him as a “non-traditional” male. For these children, therefore, this study appears to provide little support for claims that exposure to a male teacher will necessarily challenge children’s sex stereotyped views about gender. Moreover, for these children, given their focus on Bill as teacher, rather than as a male, essentialist arguments that boys necessarily have an unmet desire or need for a traditional adult male presence to counter the supposedly “female culture” in early childhood education seem not to hold much weight. As far as these children are concerned, a very tentative answer to Smedley’s (1998) question, “Do men offer something different in their work with young children on account of their being men?” Would appear to be “no”. In many respects, however, the study raises more questions than it answers and, as such, provides a potentially fruitful basis for further research. An initial focus could be to explore the feasibility of developing coding categories to analyse children’s perceptions of their preschool teachers that could be used across different settings while adequately conveying the richness and diversity of children’s responses within any particular setting. Meaningful comparisons of children’s perceptions and portrayals of their teachers across contexts could then begin to generate insights into whether children may perceive and respond differently to male and female teachers.” (p120) Clearly, a qualitative study of some type would be most appropriate for the development of these coding categories. What sampling technique would you advise Sumsion to use to fulfil her objective and why? Sumsion, J. (2005). Male teachers in early childhood education: issues and case study. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 20(1), 109–123.
The sampling technique that I would advise Sumsion to use in order to develop the
coding categories would be the random sampling method. The coding categories that
need to be developed will aid in the analysis of children’s insights of their teachers.
Random sampling, as explained before, includes the selection of a representative
sample from a population arbitrarily. This method Is the most appropriate in this case
since it will ensure that the selected sample is free of bias. Consequently, results
obtained from this study will be genuine and acceptable. This method is also the most suitable since the study in question will require a sample from all settings. It is appropriate since in random sampling, all the individuals have a chance to be selected to take part in the study. Based on this reason, the random sampling method would be recommended in this case.
Question Learning outcome Source
11 Understands the concepts of the internal and the external validity of a quantitative study and can explain the difference between them [K6.3]. Johnson and Christensen (2010) Ch. 10 pp247-260
11) Describe the difference between internal validity and external validity as applied to quantitative research.
Internal validity refers to the degree to which one is able to eliminate any confounding
variables that may exist within the particular study. In any given study, it is expected
that some variables that are being investigated may have puzzling characteristics that
were not anticipated. Internal validity caters for this and explains the extent to which
the study is successful without due consideration of the weird variables that if
included will completely alter the results obtained.
On the other hand, external validity refers to a study that depicts its findings in a way
that generalises the population in question. In this case, external validity expresses all
the data obtained in a general way. For instance, the findings of a particular research
may be expressed with relation to a common factor affecting the members of a certain
population, therefore, generalising the findings obtained.
Learning outcome Source
12 Understands that qualitative researchers have a different understanding of the concept of validity and can outline the strategies used to maximise it [K6.4] Johnson and Christensen (2010) Ch. 10 pp264-273
12) Qualitative researchers have a different conception of “validity” than that which is typically applied to quantitative research. Outline the major concepts relating to the “validity” of a qualitative study and briefly discuss the strategies used to maximise it.
There exists a variation in the definition of validity as used in quantitative and
qualitative research. This difference is mainly due to the variations that the two
research methods have. An accepted definition has not yet been developed for validity
in qualitative research. However, one is commonly used and is widely accepted even
if it has several critics. In qualitative research, validity is not entirely based on the
presence of findings. Instead, the true validity of the research lies in the representation
of participants who are taking part in the study, the purpose of the research and how
appropriate the processes involved are. Therefore, validity in this case does not rely
on the results but on the methods used in the study. This is a complete alteration than
the definition used in quantitative research which heavily relies on the findings in
order to draw the required conclusions.

Originally posted 2017-09-28 16:30:16.



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