# Write a 500 words result section: 2 t-tests (paired sample and

February 27, 2019Academic Papers

There are two research scenarios you need to report results on. Don’t worry about
theory or how plausible the results are, just report them (whether the results are valid or not and their implications for theory would form part of a discussion section, which isn’t asked for here). Here’s the scenarios:
Scenario 1.
A University asks a sport and exercise psychologist to introduce a motivational
training scheme to the swimming team. At the start of the season she times the swimmers over 100 m in their chosen style. She then begins the motivational training before each twice- weekly training session for the season. During the week before the final event of the season she times the swimmers again over 100m in their original style.
Scenario 2.
An occupational psychologist was contracted to assess attitudes towards work and
the workplace in two similar size branches of a company where productivity of the older branch had reached a plateau while the newer branch increased output monthly. The older branch was located in an industrialised urban location whereas the newer branch was situated in a newly built trading estate in a rural location. The psychologist predicted that employees of the most productive branch would have the most positive attitude to work. All employees were asked to complete a questionnaire. Higher scores indicated a positive attitude to work and the workplace.
What you need to do
For each scenario you need to:
? Decide what the design is (one is within subjects (repeated measures) the other is between subjects (independent groups))
? Enter the data into SPSS and perform the following analyses
o Descriptive statistics (Means/SDs/95% CI) for each condition
? For one of the scenarios you should report the descriptive statistics
in a table (see Week 4 lecture)
? For the other scenario report the descriptive statistics in a bar
chart with error bars showing 95% confidence intervals and
precise statistical values given in text (see Week 4 lecture)
? So you end up with one results section with a table and one with a
bar chart (see Week 4 lecture)
o Inferential statistics (t(df), p, d)
? t-tests
? For both scenarios:
? You need to report the results of the t-test in the following
format (t (df), p), like this (t (43) =
5.23, p < .001)
? OR (t, df, p), like this (t =
5.23, df = 43, p < .001)
? Effect size (statistical power)
? For both scenarios (see Week 2 Lecture; Week 4 Lecture)
calculate Cohen’s d and report in the brackets with the ttest
results (just have a go at it even if you’re unsure, the
worst that can happen is some (hopefully) helpful feedback
on what went wrong)
? Like this (t(df), p, d),
e.g, (t (43), = 5.23 (p < .001, d = 1.62)
? For both scenarios you need to comment on:
? Whether the results was significant or not (p <
0.05?)

? The direction of any difference (refer back to the direction of the mean differences)
? The effect size d = .2 was a small effect size, d = .5 a medium effect size, and d =/> .8 a large effect size

? For the between subjects t-test remember to check if Levene’s test for equality of variances is significant or not
? IF Levene’s test IS significant (p <
0.05) then you need to report the fact that it is and give the statistical values on the ‘Equal variances not assumed’ line

? IF Levene’s test ISN’T significant (p > 0.05) report the
statistical values on the ‘Equal variances assumed’ line
Overall
Present two separate results sections, each with a descriptive statistics and an inferential statistics section

DON’T present all the descriptive statistics for both scenarios then all the
inferential statistics for both scenarios, this will be more difficult to read for me when I mark your assignment
DON’T write more than 500 words for all of this assignment. Less than 500
words is fine as long as you have everything that’s asked for. Remember that results sections are usually fairly brief, more isn’t better here.
Overall Format:
-In a results section there are two distinct points for discussion:
Descriptive Statistics (means/SDs/CIs)
Inferential Statistics (
e.g. t-tests)

You should present these separately, starting with descriptives and moving on to inferential statistics -First word on your results section should be…
‘Results’
This should be centred and bolded:

Results
Below this subheadings should be used for descriptive and inferential statistics
These should be aligned on the left and bolded:
Descriptive Statistics
Further subheadings (if used) should be indented on the first line, bolded, and end with a full stop -You need to start with descriptive statistics
Begin by displaying your stats either in:
A Table, or
A Figure (Graph)
You shouldn’t duplicate stats by displaying in a table and a figure
You’ll be asked to analyse two sets of data and report one with a graph and one with a table
One set of data will be within subjects, one will be between subjects
-For one of the analyses you’ll need to display a table giving descriptive statistics for both conditions including:
Means
Standard Deviations
Confidence Intervals
You’ll need to discuss your descriptive statistics after presenting them, this can be a brief paragraph Refer to the table by its number,
e.g. ‘Table 1 shows that mean reaction times in the Red Bull condition were faster than in the Lager condition’
You need to make it clear where the statistics you’re writing about come from
You’ll also need to discuss all the statistics, not just the means
-Differences between conditions in terms of means
What direction is the difference in?
Is there a big/small difference?
Standard Deviations
How much variance is there in each condition (is it small or large compared to the mean)?
Confidence Intervals
Do the CI ranges for each condition overlap or not?
If they overlap this suggest the difference may not be reliable

-You’ll need to produce a bar chart of means with error bars showing the 95% CI for each condition You will need to label each axis accurately and provide a meaningful and informative title

Originally posted 2017-11-07 00:09:48.

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